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List of Prompts and Responses for Part 4 : Case Study - How to simple use ChatGPT to increase the number of registered players

NB Videos and Graphics at the bottom of this post

Prompt 1 : What is the most effective way to assess RAE in the registered players in my club or Association ?

Answer :

To effectively assess Relative Age Effect (RAE) in the registered players of your club or association, you should follow these steps:

1. Collect Birth Data: Gather accurate birthdate information for all registered players. This data is crucial for analyzing the distribution of birth months and quarters among the players.

2. Categorize by Birth Quarters: Divide the players into four groups based on their birth quarters within the selection year (e.g., Q1: Jan-Mar, Q2: Apr-Jun, Q3: Jul-Sep, Q4: Oct-Dec). This helps to identify any disproportions in the distribution.

3. Analyze Distribution: Compare the number of players in each quarter. A balanced distribution suggests minimal RAE, while a significant skew towards earlier quarters indicates a strong RAE.

4. Consider Age Groups: Analyze each age group separately. RAE can vary across different age categories.

5. Review Historical Trends: If possible, examine past seasons’ data to identify any ongoing trends or changes in RAE within your club or association.

6. Benchmark with Larger Data Sets: If available, compare your findings with regional or national data to understand how your club's RAE compares to broader trends.

7. Incorporate Contextual Factors: Remember that RAE is influenced by various factors, including coaching practices, selection policies, and player development approaches. These should be considered when interpreting the data.

8. Regular Assessment: Make this analysis a regular part of your player development and selection review process to continually monitor and address RAE.

By following these steps, you can gain a clear understanding of RAE within your club or association and take informed steps to mitigate its impact.

Prompt 2: How would you recommend I analyse the distribution of ages quickly and effectively ?

Answer :

For a quick and effective analysis of the age distribution in your club or association, which is essential for understanding Relative Age Effect (RAE), I recommend the following steps:

1. Use a Spreadsheet Program: Input the birthdate data of all players into a spreadsheet program like Microsoft Excel or Google Sheets. This allows for easy manipulation and analysis of data.

2. Calculate Age and Birth Quarter: Add a column to calculate each player's age and another to determine their birth quarter (Q1: Jan-Mar, Q2: Apr-Jun, Q3: Jul-Sep, Q4: Oct-Dec).

3. Sort by Birth Quarter: Sort the data by birth quarter or month. This visually highlights the distribution and makes it easier to spot any imbalances.

4. Create a Pivot Table: Utilize a pivot table to summarize the data. This can show the number of players in each birth quarter or month, providing a clear view of the distribution.

5. Visualize with Charts: Generate charts (like bar charts or pie charts) from the pivot table data. Visual representations can more effectively communicate the distribution pattern and any skew towards particular quarters.

6. Compare Across Age Groups: Conduct this analysis separately for each age group to identify if RAE varies across different levels.

7. Review Regularly: Make this a regular practice to monitor changes over time and assess the effectiveness of any interventions you implement to address RAE.

By following these steps, you can quickly analyze the age distribution among your players, which is crucial for understanding and addressing RAE in your club or association.

Prompt 3 : Will RAE decrease over time and provide an even distribution or will it maintain into adult football ?

Answer :

The evolution of Relative Age Effect (RAE) from youth to adult football is a subject of ongoing research and debate. Generally, the impact of RAE tends to decrease over time, but it does not completely vanish. Here's a brief overview:

1. Decrease Over Time: As players mature, the physical and developmental differences that give early-born players an advantage in youth football diminish. This can lead to a reduction in the RAE as players reach adulthood.

2. Persistence in Elite Levels: However, RAE may persist, especially at elite levels of adult football. This is partly because early-born players, who were initially advantaged, often receive better training, more playtime, and greater development opportunities during critical growth periods.

3. Selection and Dropout Rates: The selection biases and higher dropout rates among late-born players in youth football can lead to a self-perpetuating cycle, where those initially advantaged continue to dominate squads in adult football.

4. Varies by Context: The extent to which RAE diminishes or persists can vary based on the country, the level of competition, and the specific policies of football clubs and associations.

5. Interventions Matter: Clubs and associations that actively work to mitigate RAE (e.g., through adjusted selection criteria, age group banding, or focused training for later-born players) may see a more significant decrease in its impact over time.

In summary, while there is a trend towards a decrease in RAE from youth to adult football, it does not typically result in a completely even distribution, especially at higher levels of play. Continuous efforts and targeted strategies are necessary to further mitigate its impact.

Prompt 4: Are Early born ( Quarter 1 ) birthdates generally bigger than Late Born ( Quarter 4 ) birthdates ? Please provide references for your response


The relationship between Relative Age Effect (RAE) and physical size differences between early and late-born players in football is nuanced. Contrary to common belief, a study found no significant differences in physical measures such as height and weight across different birth quarters in young male soccer players. Instead, the study highlighted that maturity, rather than relative age, has a greater association with physical performance. This indicates that early maturers, regardless of their birth quarter, tend to perform better in physical measures compared to their peers who mature later. It's important for practitioners to monitor and assess biological maturation in young soccer players to control its influence on physical performance and avoid biases in player selection based on absolute performance rather than talent .

Ref: Radnor, J. M., Staines, J., Bevan, J., Cumming, S. P., Kelly, A. L., Lloyd, R. S., & Oliver, J. L. (2021). Maturity Has a Greater Association than Relative Age with Physical Performance in English Male Academy Soccer Players. Sports, 9(12), 171. DOI: 10.3390/sports9120171.

Prompt : 5 How does RAE effect the recruitment of players at early ages ? Are clubs and Associations missing out on attracting players with Quarter 4 birthdates?

Answer :

Here's a summary of the key findings from the study "Inevitable Relative Age Effects in Different Stages of the Selection Process among Male and Female Youth Soccer Players":

1. Persistence of RAE in Selections: Despite efforts to reduce RAE by ensuring a mix of birthdates in team selections, early-born boys and girls (born in the first half of the year) are more likely to be selected in all stages of the process.

2. Increase with Competition Intensity: As the selection process progresses and becomes more competitive, adherence to the distribution criterion (60/40 split for first/last half of the year) diminishes, resulting in a higher RAE in the final stages.

3. No Significant Gender Differences: The study found no notable gender differences in RAE at any stage of the selection process, indicating that RAE impacts both male and female players similarly.

References :

"Relative Age and Dropout in French Male Soccer" by Nicolas Delorme, Julie Boiché, and Michel Raspaud:

Prompt 6 : In the overall research on this topic is there any difference recorded between boys and girls ?


The overall research on the topic of Relative Age Effect (RAE) indicates some differences between boys and girls:

  1. Presence in Both Genders: RAE is present in both male and female sports contexts, affecting the selection and performance opportunities for young athletes. However, the magnitude and impact of RAE can vary between genders.

  2. Moderating Factors: In female sports, the RAE is influenced by several interacting constraints. These include the level of competition, the age of athletes, and the type of sport. In sports with fewer female participants and where selections start later, the RAE tends to be weaker. Additionally, physical differences among girls are generally smaller compared to boys, and girls reach puberty earlier, which means the largest differences due to RAE might not coincide with the timing of strictest selection regimes.

  3. Variation Across Sports and Age Groups: In sports where physical characteristics are less important, the RAE is less prominent or even absent in both genders. For example, in sports where being smaller is advantageous, such as dance or horse racing, there's a reversal of the RAE, favoring later-born athletes. This reversal, however, is part of the same RAE mechanism. The RAE is observed at all levels in soccer, one of the sports with a significant presence of the effect, but its strength varies across different age groups and is generally stronger in younger athletes.

In conclusion, while RAE is a common phenomenon in youth sports affecting both genders, its impact and manifestation can differ based on the sport's nature, the age and developmental stage of the athletes, and the gender-specific physiological and social factors


  1. "Inevitable Relative Age Effects in Different Stages of the Selection Process among Male and Female Youth Soccer Players". This study examines the RAE in youth soccer, highlighting its presence in both male and female athletes throughout various stages of the selection process. It underscores the persistence of RAE despite efforts to reduce its impact in selections.

  • Reference: Lagestad, P., Steen, I., & Dalen, T. (2018). Inevitable Relative Age Effects in Different Stages of the Selection Process among Male and Female Youth Soccer Players. Sports, 6(2), 29. DOI.

  1. "Variations in the Relative Age Effect with Age and Sex, and Over Time—Elite-level Data from International Soccer World Cups". This research provides a comprehensive analysis of the RAE in international soccer, examining its variations across age, sex, and over time, offering insights into how the RAE operates differently in male and female soccer at various competitive levels.

  1. "Relative Age Effects Across and Within Female Sport Contexts: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". This systematic review and meta-analysis study focuses on the prevalence and magnitude of RAE in female sports, including soccer. It offers a broad perspective on how RAE affects female athletes in soccer and other sports.

  • Reference: Smith, K. L., Weir, P. L., Till, K., Romann, M., & Cobley, S. (2018). Relative Age Effects Across and Within Female Sport Contexts: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine, 48(8), 1989-1990. PubMed.

Prompt 7 : Roughly speaking what % of players are Clubs and Associations missing out on by not addressing RAE ?

Answer :

The percentage of players that clubs and associations may be missing out on due to not addressing the Relative Age Effect (RAE) can vary significantly depending on several factors, including the sport, the level of competition, and the effectiveness of interventions. Roughly speaking, studies have suggested that RAE can lead to clubs and associations missing out on anywhere from 15% to 30% or more of potential talent in youth sports.

Summarised in a diagram below from ChatGPT

Prompt 9 : Can you create a short video to explain the above to coaches ?

Answer -

Prompt 10 : Can you provide for Clubs and Associations simple ideas to increase the number of Quarter 1 players they recruit and retain these players ?

Answer :

  1. Implement Age-Ordered Numbering: Use age-ordered shirt numbering in tryouts and training, as this can reduce age-related biases, helping scouts and coaches to focus on skills rather than age.

  2. Adjust Evaluation Criteria: Modify talent identification criteria to focus more on potential rather than current physical advantages. This can help in recognizing the abilities of younger players within the same age group.

  3. Educational Workshops: Conduct workshops for coaches and scouts about the Relative Age Effect, emphasizing the importance of identifying and supporting younger talent.

  4. Balanced Team Formation: Form teams with a balanced distribution of birth months. This ensures equal opportunities for all players and reduces the impact of RAE.

  5. Monitor and Support: Regularly monitor the development of Q1 players and provide additional support where needed, like skill development programs or mentoring.

  6. Promote Inclusivity: Foster an inclusive environment that values and encourages players born later in the selection year.

Prompt 11 : Can you summarise these ideas to give me in a diagram please ?


Prompt 11 : Can you summarise these ideas to give me in a video please ?


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